Global Capability Centers in India: Evolution & Benefits for Global Firms


Global Capability Centers (GCCs) have become pivotal in the current business landscape. These centers, also known as Global In-house Centers (GICs) or Captive Centers, serve as offshore units that perform critical business functions for multinational companies (MNCs). The evolution of GCCs in India is a testament to the country’s prowess in Legal, Tech. Talent pool, & cost efficiency. This article explores the evolution of GCCs in India, their significant benefits to global firms, and relevant stats and opinions to illustrate their impact.

Evolution of Global Capability Centers in India

The inception of GCCs in India dates back to the early 1990s when economic liberalization policies were introduced. These policies opened up the Indian economy to foreign investments, leading to the entry of several multinational corporations. Companies like Texas Instruments, American Express, and General Electric were among the pioneers in setting up their capability centers in India, primarily to leverage cost advantages and access an exemplarily skilled workforce.

The early 2000s saw a significant expansion and diversification of GCCs in India. The Y2K phenomenon and the dot-com boom further accelerated the growth of the IT and BPO sectors. Companies started viewing India not just as a cost-saving destination but also as a strategic hub for innovation and complex problem-solving. The range of services expanded from basic back-office operations to include high-end functions such as research and development, data analytics, and financial analysis.

By the 2010s, GCCs had evolved from cost centers to value centers. The focus shifted from merely supporting global operations to driving business transformation and innovation. Companies like Google, Microsoft, and Amazon set up extensive R&D centers in India, tapping into the local talent pool for advanced technological development. The emergence of digital technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and blockchain further fuelled this transformation.

The 2020s have marked a new era for GCCs in India, characterized by digital and strategic excellence. The COVID-19 pandemic underscored the importance of digital transformation, and GCCs played a crucial role in enabling business continuity for global firms. The scope of operations has now extended to include digital transformation initiatives, cybersecurity, cloud computing, and sustainability practices. According to a report by NASSCOM, there are over 1,300 GCCs in India as of 2023, employing more than 1.3 million professionals.

Benefits of Global Capability Centers in India for Global Firms

One of the primary benefits of setting up GCCs in India is cost efficiency. India offers a significant cost advantage due to lower labor costs compared to developed countries. According to Deloitte, companies can save up to 70% on operational costs by setting up GCCs in India. This cost efficiency allows firms to allocate resources more strategically and invest in other areas of growth.

India boasts a vast and highly skilled talent pool, particularly in the fields of IT, engineering, and finance. Indian universities produce millions of graduates each year, many of whom are proficient in English and possess advanced technical skills. This access to a skilled workforce enables global firms to drive innovation and maintain a competitive edge. As noted by Sundar Pichai, CEO of Alphabet Inc., “India’s talent pool is one of the reasons why we continue to invest in the country.”

GCCs in India have evolved into hubs of innovation and research and development. Companies leverage the technical expertise and creativity of Indian professionals to develop new products, services, and solutions. For instance, General Electric’s John F. Welch Technology Centre in Bangalore is one of the largest R&D centers globally, contributing significantly to GE’s technological advancements.

The time zone difference between India and Western countries provides a unique advantage. It allows for round-the-clock operations, ensuring business continuity and faster turnaround times. This is particularly beneficial for customer support, IT services, and project management, where time-sensitive tasks can be handled efficiently.

GCCs offer enhanced operational flexibility, enabling firms to scale their operations up or down based on business needs. This flexibility is crucial in today’s dynamic business environment, where agility and responsiveness are key to success. Companies can quickly adapt to market changes and customer demands, ensuring sustained growth and profitability.

By outsourcing non-core functions to GCCs, global firms can focus on their core competencies and strategic initiatives. This focus enables companies to enhance their competitive position and drive business growth. For instance, a multinational bank might outsource its IT and back-office operations to a GCC, allowing it to concentrate on customer service and financial product innovation.

GCCs in India are known for their high-quality standards and efficiency. The combination of skilled professionals, robust infrastructure, and process excellence ensures that global firms receive top-notch services. Many GCCs follow international standards and best practices, contributing to improved operational efficiency and effectiveness.

Statistics and Insights

According to NASSCOM, the number of GCCs in India has grown from around 750 in 2010 to over 1,300 in 2023. This growth highlights India’s attractiveness as a destination for global capability centers.

GCCs in India employ over 1.3 million professionals, making a significant contribution to the country’s employment landscape. This also reflects the availability of a large talent pool for global firms to tap into.

A study by McKinsey & Company found that over 50% of GCCs in India are involved in high-end functions such as R&D, digital transformation, and advanced analytics. This underscores the role of GCCs in driving innovation for global firms.

Research by Deloitte indicates that companies can achieve cost savings of up to 70% by setting up GCCs in India. This cost efficiency is a major factor driving the growth of GCCs in the country.

According to a survey by Everest Group, 80% of GCCs in India reported improved service quality and efficiency compared to their operations in other regions. This highlights the effectiveness of GCCs in delivering high-quality services.

Quotes from Industry Leaders

“India’s talent pool is one of the reasons why we continue to invest in the country. The innovation and creativity of Indian professionals are driving our global initiatives.”

“Our development centers in India are at the forefront of our digital transformation efforts. The talent and expertise here are unparalleled, contributing significantly to our global success.”

“India is a strategic hub for Accenture. Our GCCs in India are not just about cost savings; they are centers of innovation, driving our business forward.”

“The work done by our teams in India is crucial to our global operations. From R&D to customer support, India plays a vital role in our success.”

Future Outlook

The future of GCCs in India looks promising, with several trends shaping their evolution

GCCs will continue to play a pivotal role in digital transformation initiatives, helping global firms adapt to the rapidly changing technological landscape. The focus will be on leveraging emerging technologies such as AI, machine learning, and blockchain to drive business innovation.

As sustainability becomes a key priority for businesses worldwide, GCCs in India are likely to take on more projects related to environmental sustainability, renewable energy, and social responsibility.

With the increasing prevalence of cyber threats, GCCs will be integral in strengthening cybersecurity measures for global firms. This will involve developing advanced security solutions and protocols to protect sensitive data and ensure business continuity.

Collaboration between GCCs in India and other global centers will become more seamless, fostering a more integrated approach to business operations. This will enhance knowledge sharing, innovation, and operational efficiency.


Global Capability Centers in India have evolved significantly over the past three decades, transforming from cost-saving units to strategic hubs of innovation and value creation. The benefits they provide to global firms, including cost efficiency, access to skilled talent, and enhanced operational flexibility, are substantial. As the business landscape continues to evolve, GCCs in India are poised to play an even more critical role in driving digital transformation, innovation, and sustainable growth for multinational companies. With their strategic importance and potential for future growth, GCCs in India remain a key asset for global firms navigating the complexities of the modern business world.

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